With such an approach, we attack the disease at an earlier stage," says group leader Evandro Fei Fang. The study shows that in the brains of both Alzheimer's patients and in animal models of Alzheimer's, an accumulation of broken mitochondria occurs. Broken mitochondria produce increased stress levels in cells. The stress can cause nerve cells, also called neurons, to become dysfunctional and die. This also includes a type of brain cell called microglia, which constitutes an important part of the brain's defences against inflammation. The cleansing process of mitochondria in cells is called Mitophagy.
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The experiments were carried out on mice, a type of roundworm and brain tissue in the laboratory. When we introduced the various substances to the animals, it started the cleansing process of dysfunctional mitochondria in brain cells. Two types of drugs are currently used to treat cognitive symptoms:. Cholinesterase inhibitors. These drugs work by boosting levels of cell-to-cell communication by preserving a chemical messenger that is depleted in the brain by Alzheimer's disease.
The improvement is modest. Cholinesterase inhibitors may also improve neuropsychiatric symptoms, such as agitation or depression. Commonly prescribed cholinesterase inhibitors include donepezil Aricept , galantamine Razadyne and rivastigmine Exelon. The main side effects of these drugs include diarrhea, nausea, loss of appetite and sleep disturbances.
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In people with cardiac conduction disorders, serious side effects may include cardiac arrhythmia. Sometimes other medications such as antidepressants may be prescribed to help control the behavioral symptoms associated with Alzheimer's disease. Adapting the living situation to the needs of a person with Alzheimer's disease is an important part of any treatment plan. For someone with Alzheimer's, establishing and strengthening routine habits and minimizing memory-demanding tasks can make life much easier.
You can take these steps to support a person's sense of well-being and continued ability to function:. Explore Mayo Clinic studies testing new treatments, interventions and tests as a means to prevent, detect, treat or manage this disease. Various herbal remedies, vitamins and other supplements are widely promoted as preparations that may support cognitive health or prevent or delay Alzheimer's. Clinical trials have produced mixed results with little evidence to support them as effective treatments. Supplements promoted for cognitive health can interact with medications you're taking for Alzheimer's disease or other health conditions.
Work closely with your health care team to create a safe treatment plan with any prescriptions, over-the-counter medications or dietary supplements. Healthy lifestyle choices promote good overall health and may play a role in maintaining cognitive health. Regular exercise is an important part of a treatment plan. Activities such as a daily walk can help improve mood and maintain the health of joints, muscles and the heart. Exercise can also promote restful sleep and prevent constipation.
People with Alzheimer's who develop trouble walking may still be able to use a stationary bike or participate in chair exercises. People with Alzheimer's may forget to eat, lose interest in preparing meals or not eat a healthy combination of foods. They may also forget to drink enough, leading to dehydration and constipation.
A whole new hypothesis
Social interactions and activities can support the abilities and skills that are preserved. Doing things that are meaningful and enjoyable are important for the overall well-being of a person with Alzheimer's disease. These might include:. People with Alzheimer's disease experience a mixture of emotions — confusion, frustration, anger, fear, uncertainty, grief and depression.
If you're caring for someone with Alzheimer's, you can help them cope with the disease by being there to listen, reassuring the person that life can still be enjoyed, providing support, and doing your best to help the person retain dignity and self-respect. A calm and stable home environment can help reduce behavior problems. New situations, noise, large groups of people, being rushed or pressed to remember, or being asked to do complicated tasks can cause anxiety. As a person with Alzheimer's becomes upset, the ability to think clearly declines even more. Caring for a person with Alzheimer's disease is physically and emotionally demanding.
Feelings of anger and guilt, stress and discouragement, worry and grief, and social isolation are common. Caregiving can even take a toll on the caregiver's physical health. Paying attention to your own needs and well-being is one of the most important things you can do for yourself and for the person with Alzheimer's.
Many people with Alzheimer's and their families benefit from counseling or local support services.greetingsreadings.com/wp-content/search/799.php
Contact your local Alzheimer's Association affiliate to connect with support groups, doctors, occupational therapists, resources and referrals, home care agencies, residential care facilities, a telephone help line, and educational seminars. Medical care for the loss of memory or other thinking skills usually requires a team or partner strategy. If you are concerned about your memory loss or related symptoms, ask a close relative or friend to go with you to a doctor's appointment.
In addition to providing support, your partner can provide help in answering questions. If you are accompanying someone on a doctor's appointment, your role may be to provide some history or your perspective on changes you have observed. This teamwork is an important part of medical care for initial appointments and throughout a treatment plan. Your primary care doctor may refer you to a neurologist, psychiatrist, neuropsychologist or other specialist for further evaluation. You can prepare for your appointment by writing down as much information as possible to share.
Information may include:. Your doctor will likely ask a number of the following questions to understand changes in memory or other thinking skills. They should not have been surprised. Not only have there been more than failed trials for Alzheimer's, it's been clear for some time that researchers are likely decades away from being able to treat this dreaded disease.
Which leads me to a prediction: There will be no effective therapy for Alzheimer's disease in my lifetime. Clinically, I am an emergency physician. But my research interests include diagnostic biomarkers , which are molecular indicators of disease, and a diagnostic test for Alzheimer's is something of a holy grail.
How Is Alzheimer's Disease Treated?
Alzheimer's sits right at the confluence of a number unfortunate circumstances. Stick with me on this — it's mostly bad news for anyone middle-aged or older, but there's a reward of sorts at the end. If you understand why there won't be much headway on Alzheimer's, you'll also understand a bit more why modern medicine has been having fewer breakthroughs on major diseases.
For decades it was widely believed that the cause of Alzheimer's was the build-up of abnormal proteins called amyloid and Tau. These theories dominated the field and led some to believe we were on the verge of effective treatments — through preventing or removing these abnormal proteins. But had the theories been correct we would likely have had at least one or two positive clinical trials.
In retrospect, the multi-decade amyloid fixation looks like a mistake that could have been avoided. Although there is a correlation between amyloid and risk of Alzheimer's, there are elderly people whose brains have significant amounts of the protein and yet are cognitively intact.
Versions of this observation date back to at least the s. That's one reason why researchers have questioned the enthusiasm for this one hypothesis. It was always possible that the classic plaques and tangles first seen by Alois Alzheimer , and now known to be made of abnormal proteins, were epiphenomena of aging and not the cause of the disease.
Epiphenomena are characteristics that are associated with the disease but are not its cause.