Much of this treatment is based on clinical research. While clinical psychologists tend to work directly with clients, non-clinical psychologists focus more heavily on research. Research psychologists employ scientific methods to explore relationships between various psychosocial variables and examine a wide range of topics related to mental processes and behavior. Researchers and other non-clinical psychologists often work in university psychology departments or teach in other academic settings e.
Chapter 1: Section 1: Introduction to Psychology and Research Methods
Some are employed in industrial and organizational settings, in health-care settings, in the media, in sports, or in forensic investigation and other law-related fields. The field of psychology emerged as a scientific discipline in the 19th century, but its roots go back to ancient philosophy.
Many cultures throughout history have speculated on the nature of the mind, heart, soul, spirit, and brain. Philosophical interest in behavior and the mind dates back to the ancient civilizations of Egypt, Greece, China, and India.
Psychology was largely a branch of philosophy until the mids, when it developed as an independent and scientific discipline in Germany and the United States. These philosophical roots played a large role in the development of the field. From approximately to BC, Greek philosophers explored a wide range of topics relating to what we now consider psychology.
Socrates and his followers, Plato and Aristotle, wrote about such topics as pleasure, pain, knowledge, motivation, and rationality. They theorized about whether human traits are innate or the product of experience, which continues to be a topic of debate in psychology today. They also considered the origins of mental illness, with both Socrates and Plato focusing on psychological forces as the root of such illnesses.
Plato and Aristotle : Plato, Aristotle, and other ancient Greek philosophers examined a wide range of topics relating to what we now consider psychology. According to dualism, the body is a physical entity with scientifically measurable behavior, while the mind is a spiritual entity that cannot be measured because it transcends the material world. Descartes believed that the two interacted only through a tiny structure at the base of the brain called the pineal gland. Thomas Hobbes and John Locke were English philosophers from the 17th century who disagreed with the concept of dualism.
They argued that all human experiences are physical processes occurring within the brain and nervous system. Thus, their argument was that sensations, images, thoughts, and feelings are all valid subjects of study.
How to understand people psychology | 2KnowMySelf
As this view holds that the mind and body are one and the same, it later became known as monism. Today, most psychologists reject a rigid dualist position: many years of research indicate that the physical and mental aspects of human experience are deeply intertwined. The fields of psychoneuroimmunology and behavioral medicine explicitly focus on this interconnection. The term did not come into popular usage until the German idealist philosopher Christian Wolff used it in his Psychologia empirica and Psychologia rationalis — The late 19th century marked the start of psychology as a scientific enterprise.
Psychology as a self-conscious field of experimental study began in , when German scientist Wilhelm Wundt founded the first laboratory dedicated exclusively to psychological research in Leipzig. Often considered the father of psychology, Wundt was the first person to refer to himself as a psychologist and wrote the first textbook on psychology, entitled Principles of Physiological Psychology.
Wundt believed that the study of conscious thoughts would be the key to understanding the mind. His approach to the study of the mind was groundbreaking in that it was based on systematic and rigorous observation, laying the foundation for modern psychological experimentation.
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- Introduction to the Field of Psychology.
He systematically studied topics such as attention span, reaction time, vision, emotion, and time perception. Wilhelm Wundt is considered by many to be the founder of psychology. He laid the groundwork for what would later become the theory of structuralism. Edward B. This theory attempted to understand the mind as the sum of different underlying parts, and focused on three things: 1 the individual elements of consciousness; 2 how these elements are organized into more complex experiences; and 3 how these mental phenomena correlate with physical events.
Titchener attempted to classify the structures of the mind much like the elements of nature are classified in the periodic table—which is not surprising, given that researchers were making great advancements in the field of chemistry during his time.
50 must-read psychology books
He believed that if the basic components of the mind could be defined and categorized, then the structure of mental processes and higher thinking could be determined. Largely concerned with cognition and specifically with cognitive biases, David DiSalvo makes this book stand out in quite a few ways. Not only that, there are tactics and resource materials included in the book.
My only problem with these is that they are clumped near the end instead of being sprinkled about the many great examples. Despite that, Eagleman has put together a seriously fascinating list of studies that I will shamelessly steal and write about here on Sparring Mind. Getting ahead of the curve, or doing the unexpected, means eschewing what everyone currently expects, which requires knowing what everyone expects.
Knowing the metagame — or comparing your work to what exists today — is useful for spotting opportunities for differentiation. Originals will help you spot opportunities to stand out, and digs into the research around how creative thinking works , and what you can do to encourage those light-bulb moments. Just what exactly is happening when someone breaks character? Is character even concrete, or is it more like a shade of gray?
Great examples, great research, and a great focus make this a must-read. This book seems like a collection of short stories, and not a unified idea. Putting that aside, the different sections are far too interesting to pass up for this general lack of unity. This book is about situational influence and the effects on our decision making process.
The authors do a great job in demonstrating the many types of faulty logic that we are prone to in a variety of environments. I would classify this as an introductory book, however, so keep that in mind if you are very familiar with the field. For a true academic understanding of persuasion though, this book is fantastic.
Introduction to the Field of Psychology
I really enjoyed the writing style of this book. I can appreciate when an author has a fun writing style to keep things engaging. The research, however, is enjoyable by academic or laymen readers alike in my humble opinion. If you are interested in applying psychology to improve yourself and your mind, this is the book for you. Still, a highly important book, and it references the monkey sphere , so I needed to include it. In order to mix things up a bit, since this book is so well known, I thought I might offer some fantastic insights from one of my favorite Amazon reviews of all time :.
In this unpublished chapter, Carnegie wrote that there were some people with whom it was impossible to get along. Why is that chapter absent from this book, you ask? Well, Dale Carnegie was in the middle of writing this chapter when he was offered a trip to Europe, and rather than complete this last chapter he decided to take the trip.
The uncompleted book was sent off to publishers, and Carnegie shipped off to Europe.
As for practicality, I would say this book is another one of those books that is about understanding, and through this understanding there are some practical applications to be had. The rest of the book is a fun read. Today, things have changed, as research is showing that consumers no longer trust company-sponsored advertisements. Strong brands are creating authentic communication with their markets, guided by a sense of responsibility and purpose. Having this insight enables you to create specific communication that is meaningful to people and shows that you understand them, which allows them to create an emotional bond with your brand.
The emerging discipline of behavioral economics has been gaining traction in top universities over the past decade. Behavioral economics research is shedding light on the biases and mistakes that people make, time and time again. To start, I recommend creating a strong buyer persona. To create your first persona, think about a person who represents a typical group of your buyers.
Give them a name. Find a photo to represent that person and describe that person. What is her job?